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Senators Born Outside the United States


The president is constitutionally required to be natural born, but foreign–born senators need only nine years of U.S. citizenship to qualify for office. Constitutional qualifications to be a senator are specified in Article I, section 3.

Key:

* Born to American parents abroad
† Born in territories not yet incorporated into the U.S.

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SenatorSenate ServiceBirth Place
ArmstrongDavid H. Armstrong (MO) 1877_18791877–1879Canada
BairdDavid Baird (NJ) 1918_19191918–1919Ireland
BakerEdward D. Baker (OR) 1860_18611860–1861England
BeckJames B. Beck (KY) 1877_18901877–1890Scotland
BenjaminJudah P. Benjamin (LA) 1853_18611853–1861St. Croix
BoschwitzRudy Boschwitz (MN) 1978_19911978–1991Germany
ButlerPierce Butler (SC) 1789_17961789–1796; 1802–1804Ireland
CampbellGeorge W. Campbell (TN) 1811_18141811–1814; 1815–1818Scotland
CasserlyEugene Casserly (CA) 1869_18731869–1873Ireland
ConnessJohn Conness (CA) 1863_18691863–1869Ireland
CouzensJames Couzens (MI) 1922_19361922–1936Canada
DavisJames J. Davis (PA) 1930_19451930–1945Wales
DudleyCharles E. Dudley (NY) 1829_18331829–1833England
FairJames G. Fair (NV) 1881_18871881–1887Ireland
FromentinEligius Fromentin (LA) 1813_18191813–1819France
GallatinAlbert Gallatin (PA)1793not seatedSwitzerland
GallingerJacob H. Gallinger (NH) 1891_19181891–1918Canada
GoodingFrank R. Gooding (ID) 1921_19281921–1928England
HarperWilliam Harper (SC) 18261826Antigua
HayakawaSamuel I. Hayakawa (CA) 1977_19831977–1983Canada
HironoMazie K. Hirono (HI) 20132013–presentJapan
HughesWilliam Hughes (NJ) 1913_19181913–1918Ireland
JacksonJames Jackson (GA) 1793_18061793–1795; 1801–1806England
JohnsonMagnus Johnson (MN) 1923_19251923–1925Sweden
JonesCharles W. Jones (FL) 1875_18871875–1887Ireland
JonesJohn P. Jones (NV) 1873_19031873–1903England
KearnsThomas Kearns (UT) 1901_19051901–1905Canada
LarrazoloOctaviano A. Larrazolo (NM) 1928_19291928–1929Mexico
LauranceJohn Laurance (NY) 1796_18001796–1800England
LorimerWilliam Lorimer (IL) 1909_19121909–1912England
LowrieWalter Lowrie (PA) 1819_18251819–1825Scotland
MalloryStephen R. Mallory (FL) 1851_18611851–1861Trinidad
MantleLee Mantle (MT) 1895_18991895–1899England
MartinezMel Martinez (FL) 2005_20092005–2009Cuba
McMillanJames McMillan (MI) 1889_19021889–1902Canada
MillardJoseph H. Millard (NE) 1901_19071901–1907Canada
MorrisRobert Morris (PA) 1789_17951789–1795England
MosesJohn Moses (ND) 19451945Norway
MurrayJames E. Murray (MT) 1934_19611934–1961Canada
NelsonKnute Nelson (MN) 1895_19231895–1923Norway
NicholsonSamuel D. Nicholson (CO) 1921_19231921–1923Canada
PascoSamuel Pasco (FL) 1887_18991887–1899England
PatersonWilliam Paterson (NJ) 1789_17901789–1790Ireland
PattersonThomas M. Patterson (CO) 1901_19071901–1907Ireland
PorterAlexander Porter (LA) 1833_18371833–1837Ireland
RobertsonEdward V. Robertson (WY) 1943_19491943–1949Wales
SchurzCarl Schurz (MO) 1869_18751869–1875Germany
SewellWilliam J. Sewell (NJ) 1881_18871881–1887; 1895–1901Ireland
ShieldsJames Shields (IL, MN, MO) 1849_18551849–1855; 1858–1859; 1879Ireland
SimonJoseph Simon (OR) 1898_19031898–1903Germany
SouléPierre Soulé (LA) 18471847; 1849–1853France
StephensonIsaac Stephenson (WI) 1907_19151907–1915Canada
SullivanPatrick J. Sullivan (WY) 1929_19301929–1930Ireland
SutherlandGeorge Sutherland (UT) 1905_19171905–1917England
TaggartThomas Taggart (IN) 19161916Ireland
TiffinEdward Tiffin (OH) 1807_18091807–1809England
WagnerRobert F. Wagner (NY) 1927_19491927–1949Germany
WalshPatrick Walsh (GA) 1894_18951894–1895Ireland
YuleeDavid L. Yulee (FL) 1845_18511845–1851; 1855–1861St. Thomas
BennetMichael F. Bennet (CO) 20092009–presentIndia
CathcartCharles W. Cathcart (IN) 1852_18531852–1853Madeira
CruzTed Cruz (TX) 20132013–presentCanada
DuckworthTammy Duckworth (IL) 20172017–presentThailand
HerbertFelix Hébert (RI) 1929_19351929–1935Canada
McCainJohn S. McCain III (AZ) 1987_20181987–2018Panama Canal Zone
NesmithJames W. Nesmith (OR) 1861_18671861–1867Canada
OliverGeorge T. Oliver (PA) 1909_19171909–1917Ireland
Van HollenChris Van Hollen (MD) 20172017–presentPakistan
WeickerLowell P. Weicker, Jr. (CT) 1971_19891971–1989France
WetmoreGeorge P. Wetmore (RI) 1895_19071895–1907; 1908–1913England
BinghamHiram Bingham (CT) 1824_19331924–1933Kingdom of Hawaii
BoulignyCharles D. J. Bouligny (LA) 1824_18291824–1829Spanish Louisiana
DestréhanJean N. Destréhan (LA) 18121812French Louisiana