The president submits a budget to Congress by the first Monday in February every year. The budget contains estimates of federal government income and spending for the upcoming fiscal year and also recommends funding levels for the federal government. Congress then must pass appropriations bills based on the president's recommendations and Congressional priorities. If Congress does not pass all appropriations measures by the start of the fiscal year (October 1), it has to enact a continuing resolution to keep the government running.
The Senate Committee on the Budget was established in 1974 by the Congressional Budget Act (Congress.gov). Along with the House Budget Committee, it is responsible for drafting Congress’ annual budget plan and monitoring action on the budget for the federal government. In addition, the Budget Committees have jurisdiction over the Congressional Budget Office (cbo.gov) .
The Executive Budget Process: An Overview (CRS) (pdf)
The Executive Budget Process Timetable (CRS) (PDF)
The Debt Limit: History and Recent Increases (CRS) (PDF)
The annual budget resolution is an agreement between the House and Senate on a budget plan for the upcoming fiscal year and at least the following four fiscal years. The budget resolution is in the form of a concurrent resolution, so it is not sent to the president for his signature and thus does not become law, but it does provide a framework for subsequent legislative action on the appropriations bills.
Formulation and Content of the Budget Resolution (CRS) (PDF)