Floyd M. Riddick: Senate Parliamentarian
Riddick explains a 1929 change to the Senate Rules that allowed for open executive sessions of the Senate, redefining a "closed session."
Martin P. Paone: Senate Democratic Cloakroom Staff; Minority and Majority Secretary
Paone discusses the influx of legislative activity in the Senate that tends to occur at the end of the final session of every Congress.
Dorothye G. Scott: Administrative Assistant to the Senate Democratic Secretary and to the Secretary of the Senate.
Scott describes the official, ceremonial joint sessions of Congress held every four years to count electoral ballots for the election of the president and vice president.