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Appointed Senators


Photo of Sam Ervin

The Seventeenth Amendment to the Constitution (1913) established direct election of senators, as well as a means of filling vacant Senate seats. If a vacancy occurs due to a senator's death, resignation, or expulsion, the Seventeenth Amendment allows state legislatures to empower the governor to appoint a replacement to complete the term or to hold office until a special election can take place. There are a few exceptions to this rule. Some states require a special election to fill a vacancy. A few states require the governor to appoint a replacement of the same political party as the previous incumbent. The date when a senator appointed to fill a vacancy is succeeded by a senator elected to fill the remainder of the term depends on a number of factors. For more information on how vacancies are filled, see this Report (pdf) from the Congressional Research Service and the Senate Document The Term of Senator: When Does It Begin and End? (pdf).

SenatorDate appointedElected
JohnstonRienzi M. Johnston (D-TX) 19130604Jan 4, 1913 Did not seek election.
HeiskellJohn N. Heiskell (D-AR) 19130606Jan 6, 1913 Did not seek election.
WestWilliam S. West (D-GA) 19140302Mar 2, 1914 Did not seek election.
CamdenJohnson N. Camden, Jr. (D-KY) 19140616Jun 16, 1914 Yes, on November 3, 1914.
TaggartThomas Taggart (D-IN) 19160320Mar 20, 1916 No, was defeated on November 7, 1916.
McNaryCharles L. McNary (R-OR) 19170529May 29, 1917 Yes, to full term beginning March 4, 1918. Was not a candidate in the special election on the same date to fill remainder of term ending March 3, 1918, but was subsequently appointed to fill remainder of the term ending March 3, 1918.
HendersonCharles B. Henderson (D-NV) 19180112Jan 12, 1918 Yes, on November 5, 1918.
NugentJohn F. Nugent (D-ID) 19180322Jan 22, 1918 Yes, on November 5, 1918.
BairdDavid Baird (R-NJ) 19180223Feb 23, 1918 Yes, on November 5, 1918.
GuionWalter Guion (D-LA) 19180422Apr 22, 1918 Did not seek election.
WilfleyXenophon P. Wilfley (D-MO) 19180430Apr 30, 1918 No, did not win nomination.
BenetChristie Benet (D-SC) 19180706Jul 6, 1918 No, did not win nomination.
DrewIrving W. Drew (R-NH) 19180902Sep 2, 1918 Did not seek election.
MartinGeorge B. Martin (D-KY) 19180907Sep 7, 1918 Did not seek election.
GlassCarter Glass (D-VA) 19191118Nov 18, 1919 Yes, on November 3, 1920.
ComerBraxton B. Comer (D-AL) 19210305Mar 5, 1920 Did not seek election.
BursumHolm O. Bursum (R-NM) 19210311Mar 11, 1921 Yes, on September 20, 1921.
du PontThomas C. du Pont (R-DE) 19210607Jul 7, 1921 No, defeated on November 7, 1922, but was successfully elected in 1924.
CrowWilliam E. Crow (R-PA) 19211017Oct 17, 1921 Died on August 2, 1922.
PepperGeorge W. Pepper (R-PA) 19220609Jan 9, 1922 Yes, on Nov 7, 1922.
RawsonCharles A. Rawson (R-IA) 19220224Feb 24, 1922 Did not seek election.
ReedDavid A. Reed (R-PA) 19220808Aug 8, 1922 Yes, on November 7, 1922.
FeltonRebecca L. Felton (D-GA) 19221003Oct 3, 1922 Did not seek election.
CouzensJames Couzens (R-MI) 19221129Nov 29, 1922 Yes, on November 4, 1924.
AdamsAlva B. Adams (D-CO) 19230517May 17, 1923 No, defeated on November 4, 1924, but was successfully elected in 1932.
ButlerWilliam M. Butler (R-MA) 19241113Nov 13, 1924 No, defeated on November 2, 1926.
WilliamsGeorge H. Williams (R-OR) 19250525May 25, 1925 No, defeated on November 2, 1926.
RobinsonArthur R. Robinson (R-IN) 19251020Oct 20, 1925 Yes, on November 2, 1926.
NyeGerald P. Nye (R-ND) 19251114Nov 14, 1925 Yes, on June 30, 1926.
StewartDavid W. Stewart (R-IA) 19260807Aug 7, 1926 Yes, on November 2, 1926.
CuttingBronson M. Cutting (R-NM) 19271229Dec 29, 1927 Yes, on November 6, 1928, to full term beginning Mar 4, 1929; was not a candidate for special election on the same date to fill remainder of the term ending March 3, 1929.
VandenbergArthur H. Vandenberg 19280331Mar 31, 1928 Yes, on November 6, 1928.
LocherCyrus Locher (D-OH) 19280804Apr 4, 1928 No, defeated for nomination.
ThomasJohn Thomas (R-ID) 19280630Jun 30, 1928 Yes, on November 6, 1928.
HastingsDaniel O. Hastings (R-DE) 19281210Dec 10, 1928 Yes, on Nov 4, 1930.
AllenHenry J. Allen (R-KS) 19290401Apr 1, 1929 No, defeated on November 4, 1930.
BrockWilliam E. Brock (D-TN) 19290902Sep 2, 1929 Yes, on November 4, 1930.
McCullochRoscoe C. McCulloch (R-OH) 19290505Nov 5, 1929 No, defeated on November 4, 1930.
BairdDavid Baird, Jr. (R-NJ) 19291130Nov 30, 1929 Did not seek election.
SullivanPatrick J. Sullivan (R-WY) 19291205Dec 5, 1929 Did not seek election.
GrundyJoseph R. Grundy (R-PA) 19291211Dec 11, 1929 No, defeated for nomination.
RobsionJohn Robsion (R-KY) 19300609Jan 9, 1930 No, defeated on November 4, 1930.
MorrisonCameron A. Morrison (D-NC) 19301213Dec 13, 1930 No, defeated for nomination.
PartridgeFrank C. Partridge (R-VT) 19301223Dec 23, 1930 No, defeated for nomination.
CarawayHattie W. Caraway (D-AR) 19311113Nov 13, 1931 Yes, on January 12, 1932.
BarbourWilliam W. Barbour (R-NJ) 19311201Dec 1, 1931 Yes, on November 8, 1932.
CohenJohn S. Cohen (D-GA) 19320425Apr 25, 1932 Did not seek election.
WalkerWalter Walker (D-CO) 19320926Sep 26, 1932 No, defeated on November 8, 1932.
GrammerElijah S. Grammer (R-WA) 19321222Nov 22, 1932 Did not seek election.
BachmanNathan L. Bachman (D-TN) 19330228Feb 28, 1933 Yes, on November 6, 1934.
ByrdHarry F. Byrd (D-VA) 19330304Mar 4, 1933 Yes, on November 7, 1933.
EricksonJohn E. Erickson (D-MT) 19330304Mar 13, 1933 No, defeated for nomination.
ThompsonWilliam H. Thompson (D-NE) 19330424May 24, 1933 Did not seek election.
HatchCarl A. Hatch (D-NM) 19331010Oct 10, 1933 Yes, on November 6, 1934.
GibsonErnest W. Gibson (R-VT) 19331121Nov 21, 1933 Yes, on January 16, 1934.
O'MahoneyJoseph C. O'Mahoney (D-WY) 19331218Dec 18, 1933 Yes, on November 6, 1934.
ChavezDennis Chavez (D-NM) 19350511May 11, 1935 Yes, on November 3, 1936.
BensonElmer A. Benson (Farmer Laborite-MN) 19351227Dec 27, 1935 Did not seek election.
LongRose M. Long (D-LA) 19360131Jan 31, 1936 Yes, on April 21, 1936.
LoftinScott M. Loftin (D-FL) 19360526May 26, 1936 Did not seek election.
HillWilliam L. Hill (D-FL) 19360701Jul 1, 1936 Did not seek election.
HitchcockHerbert E. Hitchcock (D-SD) 19361229Dec 29, 1936 No, defeated for nomination.
BerryGeorge L. Berry (D-TN) 19370506May 6, 1937 No, defeated for nomination.
GravesDixie B. Graves (D-AL) 19370820Aug 20, 1937 Did not seek election.
HillJoseph L. Hill (D-AL) 19380110Jan 10, 1938 Yes, on April 26, 1938.
MiltonJohn G. Milton (D-NJ) 19380118Jan 18, 1938 Did not seek election.
ReamesAlfred E. Reames (D-OR) 19380201Feb 1, 1938 Did not seek election.
StorkeThomas M. Storke (D-CA) 19381109Nov 9, 1938 Did not seek election.
SlatteryJames M. Slattery (D-IL) 19390414Apr 14, 1939 No, defeated on November 6, 1940.
ChandlerHappy Chandler (D-KY) 19391010Oct 10, 1939 Yes, on November 6, 1940.
ThomasJohn Thomas (R-ID) 19400127Jan 27, 1940 Yes, on November 6, 1940.
GibsonErnest W. Gibson, Jr. (R-VT) 19400624Jun 24, 1940 Did not seek election.
BallJoseph H. Ball (R-MN) 19401014Oct 14, 1940 Yes, on November 3, 1942.
BunkerBerkeley L. Bunker (D-NV) 19401127Nov 27, 1940 No, defeated for nomination.
RosierJoseph Rosier (D-WV) 19410113Jan 13, 1941 No, defeated on November 17, 1942.
SpencerGeorge L. Spencer (D-AR) 19410401Apr 1, 1941 Did not seek election.
HoustonAndrew J. Houston (D-TX) 19410421Apr 21, 1941 Died on June 26, 1941.
EastlandJames O. Eastland (D-MS) 19410630Jun 30, 1941 Did not seek election at this time, but was elected to the Senate in 1942.
LumpkinAlva M. Lumpkin (D-SC) 19410717Jul 17, 1941 No, died in office on August 1, 1941.
PeaceRoger C. Peace (D-SC) 19410805Aug 5, 1941 Did not seek election.
MillikinEugene D. Millikin (R-CO) 19411220Dec 20, 1941 Yes, on November 3, 1942.
WalshArthur Walsh (D-NJ) 19431126Nov 26, 1943 Did not seek election.
JacksonSamuel D. Jackson (D-IN) 19440128Jan 28, 1944 Did not seek election.
WeeksSinclair Weeks (R-MA) 19440208Feb 8, 1944 Did not seek election.
CordonGuy Cordon (R-OR) 19440304Mar 4, 1944 Yes, on November 8, 1944.
HallWilton E. Hall (D-SC) 19441120Nov 20, 1944 Did not seek election.
MitchellHugh B. Mitchell (D-WA) 19450110Jan 10, 1945 No, defeated on November 5, 1946.
BriggsFrank P. Briggs (D-MO) 19450118Jan 18, 1945 No, defeated on November 5, 1946.
HartThomas C. Hart (R-CT) 19450215Feb 15, 1945 Did not seek election.
YoungMilton R. Young (R-ND) 19450312Mar 12, 1945 Yes, on June 25, 1946.
CarvilleEdward P. Carville (D-NV) 19450725Jul 25, 1945 No, defeated for nomination.
KnowlandWilliam F. Knowland (R-CA) 19450814Aug 14, 1945 Yes, on November 5, 1946.
HuffmanJames W. Huffman (D-OH) 19451008Oct 8, 1945 No, defeated on November 5, 1946.
GossettCharles C. Gossett (D-ID) 19451117Nov 17, 1945 No, defeated for nomination.
StanfillWilliam A. Stanfill (R-KY) 19451119Nov 19, 1945 Did not seek election.
BurchThomas G. Burch (D-VA) 19460531May 31, 1946 Did not seek election.
SwiftGeorge R. Swift (D-AL) 19460615Jun 15, 1946 Did not seek election.
HollandSpessard L. Holland (D-FL) 19460925Sep 25, 1946 Yes, on November 5, 1946.
FlandersRalph E. Flanders (R-VT) 19461101Nov 1, 1946 Yes, on November 5, 1946.
UmsteadWilliam B. Umstead (D-NC) 19461218Dec 18, 1946 No, defeated for nomination.
FeazelWilliam C. Feazel (D-LA) 19480518May 18, 1948 Did not seek election.
BushfieldVera C. Bushfield (R-SD) 19481006Oct 6, 1948 Did not seek election.
WithersGarrett L. Withers (D-KY) 19490120Jan 20, 1949 Did not seek election.
GrahamFrank P. Graham (D-NC) 19490329Mar 29, 1949 No, defeated for nomination.
DullesJohn F. Dulles (R-NY) 19490707Jul 7, 1949 No, defeated on November 8, 1949.
LeahyEdward L. Leahy (D-RI) 19490824Aug 24, 1949 Did not seek election.
DworshakHenry C. Dworshak (R-ID) 19491114Oct 14, 1949 Yes, on November 7, 1950.
DarbyHarry Darby (R-KS) 19491202Dec 2, 1949 Did not seek election.
BentonWilliam Benton (D-CT) 19491217Dec 17, 1949 Yes, on November 7, 1950.
UnderwoodThomas R. Underwood (D-KY) 19510319Mar 19, 1951 No, defeated on November 4, 1952.
MoodyArthur E. B. Moody (D-MI) 19510423Apr 23, 1951 No, defeated on November 4, 1952.
SeatonFrederick A. Seaton (R-NE) 19511210Dec 10, 1951 Did not seek election.
PurtellWilliam A. Purtell (R-CT) 19520829Aug 29, 1952 Was not a candidate in special election to fill remainer of the term to which he was appointed, but was elected to Class I seat in 1952.
KuchelThomas H. Kuchel (R-CA) 19530102Jan 2, 1953 Yes, on November 2, 1954.
LennonAlton A. Lennon (D-NC) 19530710Jul 10, 1953 No, defeated for nomination.
UptonRobert W. Upton (R-NH) 19530814Aug 14, 1953 No, defeated for nomination.
BurkeThomas A. Burke (D-OH) 19531113Oct 13, 1953 No, defeated on November 2, 1954.
BowringEva K. Bowring (R-NE) 19540416Apr 16, 1954 Did not seek election.
ErvinSamuel J. Ervin, Jr. (D-NC) 19540605Jun 5, 1954 Yes, on November 2, 1954.
CrippaEdward D. Crippa (R-WY) 19540624Jun 24, 1954 Did not seek election.
ReynoldsSamuel W. Reynolds (R-NE) 19540703Jul 3, 1954 Did not seek election.
DanielCharles E. Daniel (D-SC) 19540906Sep 6, 1954 Did not seek election.
BrownErnest S. Brown (R-NV) 19541101Oct 1, 1954 No, defeated on November 2, 1954.
LairdWilliam R. Laird III (D-WV) 19560313Mar 13, 1956 Did not seek election.
WoffordThomas A. Wofford (D-SC) 19560405Apr 5, 1956 Did not seek election.
HumphreysRobert Humphreys (D-KY) 19560621Jun 21, 1956 Did not seek election.
BlakleyWilliam A. Blakley (D-TX) 19570115Jan 15, 1957 Did not seek election.
HoblitzellJohn D. Hoblitzell, Jr. (R-WV) 19580125Jan 25, 1958 No, defeated on November 4, 1958.
JordanBenjamin E. Jordan (D-NC) 19580419Apr 19, 1958 Yes, on November 4, 1958.
BrunsdaleClarence Norman Brunsdale (R-ND) 19591119Nov 19, 1959 Did not seek election.
LuskHall S. Lusk (D-OR) 19600316Mar 16, 1960 Did not seek election.
LongEdward V. Long (D-MO) 19600923Sep 23, 1960 Yes, on November 8, 1960.
SmithBenjamin A. Smith II (D-MA) 19601227Dec 27, 1960 Did not seek election.
BlakleyWilliam A. Blakley (D-TX) 19610303Jan 3, 1961 No, defeated on May 27, 1961.
HickeyJohn J. Hickey (D-WY) 19610103Jan 3, 1961 No, defeated on November 6, 1962.
MurphyMaurice J. Murphy, Jr. (R-NH) 19611207Dec 7, 1961 No, defeated for nomination.
PearsonJames B. Pearson (R-KS) 19620131Jan 31, 1962 Yes, on November 6, 1962
BottumJoseph H. Bottum (R-SD) 19620709Jul 9, 1962 No, defeated on November 6, 1962.
JordanLen Jordan (R-ID) 19620806Aug 6, 1962 Yes, on November 6, 1962.
MechemEdwin L. Mechem (R-NM) 19621130Nov 30, 1962 No, defeated on November 3, 1964.
EdmondsonJames H. Edmondson (D-OK) 19630107Jan 7, 1963 No, defeated for nomination.
WaltersHerbert S. Walters (D-TN) 19630820Aug 20, 1963 Did not seek election.
SalingerPierre E. G. Salinger (D-CA) 19640804Aug 4, 1964 No, defeated on November 3, 1964.
MondaleWalter F. Mondale (D-MN) 19641230Dec 30, 1964 Yes, on November 8, 1966.
RussellDonald S. Russell (D-SC) 19650422Apr 22, 1965 No, defeated for nomination.
ByrdHarry F. Byrd, Jr. (D, I-VA) 19650512Nov 12, 1965 Yes, on November 8, 1966
GriffinRobert P. Griffin (R-MI) 19660511May 11, 1966 Yes, on November 8, 1966.
GoodellCharles E. Goodell (R-NY) 19680910Sep 10, 1968 No, defeated on November 3, 1970.
StevensTed Stevens (R-AK) 19681224Dec 24, 1968 Yes, on November 3, 1970.
SmithRalph T. Smith (R-IL) 19690917Sep 17, 1969 No, defeated on November 3, 1970.
GambrellDavid H. Gambrell (D-GA) 19710201Feb 1, 1971 No, defeated for nomination.
StaffordRobert T. Stafford (R-VT) 19710916Sep 16, 1971 Yes, on January 7, 1972.
EdwardsElaine S. Edwards (D-LA) 19720801Aug 1, 1972 Did not seek election.
MetzenbaumHoward M. Metzenbaum (D-OH) 19740104Jan 4, 1974 No, defeated for nomination, but was successfully elected to the Senate in 1976.
WymanLouis C. Wyman (R-NH) 19741231Dec 31, 1974 No, defeated on September 16, 1975. 1 1
CottonNorris H. Cotton (R-NH) 19750808Aug 8, 1975 Did not seek election.
AndersonWendell R. Anderson (D-MN) 19761230Dec 30, 1976 No, defeated on November 7, 1978.
HodgesKaneaster Hodges, Jr. (D-AR) 19771210Dec 10, 1977 Did not seek election.
HatfieldPaul G. Hatfield (D-MT) 19780122Jan 22, 1978 No, defeated for nomination.
HumphreyMuriel B. Humphrey (D-MN) 19780125Jan 25, 1978 Did not seek election.
AllenMaryon P. Allen (D-AL) 19780608Jun 8, 1978 No, defeated for nomination.
MitchellGeorge J. Mitchell (D-ME) 19800517May 17, 1980 Yes, on November 2, 1982.
BradyNicholas F. Brady (R-NJ) 19820412Apr 12, 1982 Did not seek election.
EvansDaniel J. Evans (R-WA) 19830908Sep 8, 1983 Yes, on November 8, 1983.
BroyhillJames T. Broyhill (R-NC) 19860714Jul 14, 1986 No, defeated on November 5, 1986.
KarnesDavid K. Karnes (R-NE) 19870311Mar 11, 1987 No, defeated on November 8, 1988.
CoatsDaniel R. Coats (R-IN) 19881227Dec 27, 1988 Yes, on November 6, 1990.
AkakaDaniel K. Akaka (D-HI) 19900516May 16, 1990 Yes, on November 6, 1990.
SeymourJohn Seymour (R-CA) 19910107Jan 7, 1991 No, defeated on November 3, 1992.
WoffordHarris Wofford (D-PA) 19910508May 8, 1991 Yes, on November 5, 1991.
BurdickJocelyn B. Burdick (D-ND) 19920912Sep 12, 1992 Did not seek election.
MathewsHarlan Mathews (D-TN) 19921229Dec 29, 1992 Did not seek election.
KruegerRobert C. Krueger (D-TX) 19930121Jan 21, 1993 No, defeated on Junuary 5, 1993.
FrahmSheila Frahm (R-KS) 19960611Jun 11, 1996 No, defeated for nomination.
ChafeeLincoln D. Chafee (R-RI) 19991102Nov 2, 1999 Yes, on November 7, 2000.
MillerZell B. Miller (D-GA) 20000724Jul 24, 2000 Yes, on November 7, 2000.
CarnahanJean Carnahan (D-MO) 20010103Jan 3, 2001 (effective) No, defeated on November 5, 2002.
BarkleyDean Barkley (IPM-MN) 20021104Nov 4, 2002 Did not seek election.
MurkowskiLisa Murkowski (R-AK) 20021220Dec 20, 2002 Yes, on November 2, 2004.
MenendezRobert Menendez (D-NJ) 20070117Jan 17, 2006 Yes, on November 7, 2006.
BarrassoJohn Barrasso (R-WY) 20070622Jun 22, 2007 Yes, on November 4, 2008.
WickerRoger F. Wicker (R-MS) 20071231Dec 31, 2007 Yes, on November 4, 2008.
BurrisRoland Burris (D-IL) 2 20081231Dec 31, 2008 Did not seek election.
KaufmanTed Kaufman (D-DE) 20090115Jan 15, 2009 Did not seek election.
BennetMichael F. Bennet (D-CO) 20090121Jan 21, 2009 Yes, on November 2, 2010.
GillibrandKirsten E. Gillibrand (D-NY) 3 20090126Jan 26, 2009 Yes, on November 2, 2010.
LeMieuxGeorge S. Lemieux (R-FL) 20090126Sep 9, 2009 Did not seek election.
KirkPaul G. Kirk, Jr. (D-MA) 20090924Sep 24, 2009 Did not seek election.
GoodwinCarte P. Goodwin (D-WV) 20100716Jul 16, 2010 Did not seek election.
HellerDean Heller (R-NV) 4 20110503May 3, 2011 Yes, on November 6, 2012.
SchatzBrian Schatz (D-HI) 20121226Dec 26, 2012 Yes, on November 4, 2014.
ScottTim Scott (R-SC) 20130102Jan 2, 2013 Yes, on November 4, 2014.
CowanWilliam Cowan (Mo) (D-MA) 20130201Feb 1, 2013 Did not seek election.
ChiesaJeffrey S. Chiesa (R-NJ) 20130606Jun 6, 2013 Did not seek election.
WalshJohn E. Walsh (D-MT) 20140209Feb 9, 2014 Did not seek election.
StrangeLuther J. Strange III (R-AL) 20170209Feb 9, 2017 Not a candidate in the general election, having been defeated in a primary runoff election on September 26, 2017.
SmithTina Smith (D-MN) 20180103Jan 2, 2018 Yes, on November 6, 2018.
Hyde-SmithCindy Hyde-Smith (R-MS) 20180402Apr 2, 2018 Yes, in a run-off election on November 27, 2018.
KylJon L. Kyl (R-AZ) 20180904Sep 4, 2018 Did not seek election.
McSallyMartha McSally (R-AZ) 20190303Jan 3, 2019
LoefflerKelly Loeffler (R-GA) 20200106Jan 1, 2020

1. Wyman had run against John Durkin in the November 1974 general election for seat being vacated by Norris Cotton, but the election results were contested. In the meantime, Norris Cotton resigned his seat on Dec. 31, 1974, and the governor appointed Wyman to serve the last 3 days of Cotton's term. The seat was then vacant from Jan. 3, 1975, until Aug. 8, 1975, when Cotton was appointed to fill the vacancy pending the results of a special election to be held in September between Wyman and Durkin. Durkin handily won the special election.

2. Appointed December 31, 2008, but credentials were not in order until January 15, 2009.

3. Appointed January 23, 2009, and appointment took effect upon her resignation from the House of Representatives on January 26, 2009. Took the oath of office on January 27, 2009.

4. Appointed May 3, 2011, but did not resign his House seat until May 9, 2011.